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高二英语语法:强调句
作者:高二英语组刘颖??日期/时间:2018/6/25 21:24:00??点击:722??我要评论

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一、强调句英语中有时为了需要,经常要强调句子中的某一成分,要用到一些强调句型。
强调句型的基本结构是:
it is/was + 被强调部分(主语、宾语、宾语补足语或状语等) + that/who(当强调主语且主语指人)+句子的其余部分
①连接词
一般说来,如果被强调部分是人时,用连词that或who;被强调的部分是宾语,指人时也可以用whom;如果被强调部分是物,只能用连词that。
it was john and mike who/that saw mary in the street last night.
约翰和迈克昨晚在路上看到了玛丽。
it is mary whom/ who he often helps .
他经常帮助玛丽。
it was in the street that i met him yesterday.
我昨天在路上碰到了他。
②不同的强调成分
正是玛丽昨天在路上遇到一个乞丐。
it was mary who/that met an old beggar in the street yesterday.
(强调主语)
玛丽昨天在路上遇到一个乞丐。
it was an old beggar whom/that mary met in the street yesterday.
(强调宾语)
正是昨天玛丽在路上遇到一个乞丐。
it was yesterday that mary met an old beggar in the street.
(强调时间状语)
昨天正是在路上玛丽遇到一个乞丐。
it was in the street that mary met an old beggar yesterday.
(强调地点状语)
注意: 有时,be前可使用表示推测的情态动词。如:it must be peter who has let this secret out.一定是彼得将这个秘密泄露出去的。it might be last night that they did their homework.他们也许是昨晚做完作业的。
③时态
如果原句中谓语动词使用的是现在范畴的时态(一般现在时、现在进行时、现在完成/现在完成进行时、一般将来时、将来进行时、将来完成时等),用it is...that...如果原句中谓语动词为过去范畴的时态(一般过去时、过去进行时、过去完成时、过去将来时等),则用it was...that...
its mary who/that meets an old beggar in the street.
正是玛丽经常在路上见到乞丐。
its mary who/that is doing the housework.
正是玛丽正在做家务。
its mary who/that has done such terrible things.
正是玛丽做了这件可怕的事情。
its mary who/that will have finished this task by the next week.
正是玛丽下个礼拜将会完成这个任务。
its mary who/that will be going to america.
正是玛丽将要去美国。
its mary who/that will go to see the doctor tomorrow.
正是玛丽明天要去看病。
④总结
构成强调句的it本身没有词义;
强调句中的连接词一般只用that, who,即使在强调时间状语和地点状语时也如此,that, who不可省略;
强调句中的时态只用两种,一般现在时和一般过去时。
原句谓语动词是一般过去时、过去完成时和过去进行时,用it was …… ,其余的时态用it is …… .
二、区分强调句与其他类型从句(主、定、状)
① 强调句与主语从句的区别
“it is / was + 形容词 / 分词 /+ that从句”
是主语从句,
它译成中文时不可加上
“正是……”“就是……”之类字眼,若删去“it is / was...that...”,则原句不成立。
而强调句型若删去“it is / was...that / who...”,
原句结构与语意均完整,
译成中文时,常可加上“正是……”“就是……”之类字眼。it 为形式主语,等于that后跟部分。
it is true that he is honest. (主语从句)
他真的很诚实。
it is known to all that china is a country with a long history. (主语从句)
众所周知,中国是一个历史悠久的国家。it was here that he fell off his bicycle.(强调句)
这正是他从自行车上摔下来的地方。
几种易混句式与强调句②含有定语从句的强调句型 (在被强调的名词后再设计一个以该名词为先行词的定语从句,这时不要把定语从句当作强调句)。
it was this school where (in which) he once studied that gave him a chance of teaching.正是这所他曾经学习过的学校给了他教学的机会。
③强调句型与状语从句的区别
it was at 7:00 that i arrived.(强调句型,强调时间状语at 7:00)
正是在7:00时, 我到了。
it was 7:00 when i arrived.(时间状语从句,在7:00前无介词at)
当我到达时, 时间是7:00。
it was two years ago that i began to learn drawing.(强调句型,前后时态一致)
正是在两年前我开始学习绘画。
it is(has been) two years since i began to learn drawing.(since引导的时间状语从句,前后时态不一致)
自从我学习绘画以来已经有两年了。
it was two years before they came to see us.(时间状语从句)
过了两年后他们才来看我们。
it was two years later that they came to see us.(强调句型)
正是两年后他们才来看我们的。
it won’t be long before we graduate from the school. (时间状语从句)
不久我就将毕业了。
it will be two years before we graduate from this university. (时间状语从句)再过两年我们就将大学毕业了。
三、强调三关:疑问句,主谓一致,感叹句
①强调含有not until的句子在强调not until句型时,not 位于until从句前,主句谓语动词作相应变化,即it is(was)+not until从句+that +其它。
e.g. 普通句:he didnt go to bed until/ till his wife came back.
强调句:it was not until his wife came back that he went to bed.
直到妻子回家了,他才上床休息。
it was not until he had finished the work that he went home.
直到完成了作业,他才回家。
it was not until 12 o’clock last night that my brother came home.
直到晚上12点我哥哥才回家。
注意:此句型只用until,不用till.但如果不是强调句型,till, until可通用;
因为句型中it is/ was not …… 已经是否定句了,that后面的从句要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。
②强调句的疑问句强调结构的疑问形式:强调一般疑问句中的某一成分时,要在主句中用一般疑问句的顺序。例如:
was it you that/who broke the window ?
是你吧窗户打碎了吗?
was it in the war that he lost his son ?
是在那场战争中他失去了儿子吗?
强调特殊疑问句中的疑问词,其结构模式是:“疑问词+ is/was + it +that...”。它同感叹句的强调模式极其相似,首先将疑问句开头的部分作为强调部分,套入强调结构,然后再将其变为疑问句。例如:
1. where were you born?→where was it that you were born?你在哪儿出生?
2. what did you want to see? →what was it that you wanted to see? 你想看什么?
3. how many people are being trained for the important work? →
how many people is it that are being trained for the important work ?
有多少人为这份重要工作而参加培训?
③强调句型中的主谓一致
被强调的成分为原句的主语时,that/who之后的谓语动词应与被强调的名词或代词在人称和数方面保持一致关系,从而选用恰当的动词形式。例如:
it is you who/that are wrong.
就是你错了。
it is i who/that am answering the question.
正是我回答了这个问题。
注意1:但是如果被强调的部分是人称代词,按理应用人称代词主格形式,但在口语或非正式文体中也可以用其宾格形式,此时that/who的谓语动词要用单数第三人称形式is或was。例如:it is me/i who is being asked the favor.
注意2::在it is/was..., not...that...句型中,
其谓语动词应与肯定部分的词保持一致关系。
例如:
it is my brother, not i that studies in that school.
是我的哥哥,而不是我,在那所学校上学。
it is you, not your sister that are in charge of the company.
正是你,而不是你的妹妹,管理那家公司。
注意:此句型只用until,不用till.但如果不是强调句型,till, until可通用;因为句型中it is/ was not …… 已经是否定句了,that后面的从句要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。
④感叹句的强调结构
既要体现强调句型的形式特征,又要体现感叹句的自然语序
例如:
how happy he looks! → how happy it is that he looks!
他看起来多么开心啊!
what a clever boy he is! → what a clever boy it is that he is!
他是个多么聪明的孩子啊!
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